An international environmental agreement, or sometimes an environmental protocol, is a kind of treaty of international law that allows them to achieve an environmental objective. In other words, it is an “intergovernmental document that is designed as legally binding and is primarily aimed at preventing or managing the human impact on natural resources.”  The main international instruments with which countries can cooperate on a wide range of global environmental challenges are international conventions and environmental and natural resource treaties, also known as multilateral environmental agreements (EAs). All partner states of the East African Community (EAC) have ratified the Cartagena Protocol, an international agreement to ensure the safety of the handling, transport and use of modified living organisms from modern biotechnology, which can have adverse effects on biodiversity, taking into account risks to human health. EAC partner countries are at different stages of defining national biosecurity frameworks. ACCORDS are interstate agreements that can take the form of a “soft law” that establishes non-binding principles, which parties are required to abide by when taking action to resolve a given environmental issue, or “hard rights” that define legally binding measures to achieve an environmental objective. Australia is known for its wide diversity of animal species and diverse environment, which encompasses beaches, deserts and mountains, and climate change is a major problem. The country is under the largest hole in the world`s ozone layer, which has an impact on the environment. Australia`s proximity to Antarctica raises concerns about sea level rise and changes in ocean currents that affect the climate. The IEA website is constantly being reviewed and updated. During 2017, a comprehensive review was initiated by numerous bilateral agreements and a complete update of the accession measures of all MEAs and a large number of BEAs. The current content includes more than 1,300 MEAs, more than 2,200 BEAs, 250 other environmental agreements and more than 90,000 “accession actions” (signature, ratification or entry into force; Press releases here).
A big thank you to Jorg Balsiger and Lorris Germann of the University of Geneva, who identified more than 650 BEAs and laid the groundwork for the IEADB to become a comprehensive list of bilateral and multilateral environmental agreements. Here is a list of AEMs after ten years. Lists of international environmental treaties, conventions and other conventions with links to text, membership, performance data, secretariat and summary statistics. More than 1,300 multilateral, 2,200 bilateral and 250 “others.” Grouping by date, subject and “line” of legally related agreements (e.g. B agreements on the Montreal Protocol). The “others” include environmental agreements between governments and international organizations or non-state actors, not two or more governments. NEW: Membership links in contract lists now contain annual state reports and the same information in the Stata format for data analysis. The use of multilateral environmental agreements began in 1857, when a German agreement regulates the flow of water between Lake Constance and Austria and Switzerland.  International environmental protocols were put in place as part of environmental policy following the widespread perception of cross-border environmental problems in the 1960s.  The themes covered in these agreements are very broad: biodiversity and nature protection, climate change, protection of the ozone layer, desertification, chemical and waste management, cross-border water and air pollution, environmental policy (including impact studies, access to information and public participation), industrial accidents, water and water protection, environmental responsibility.